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Serious traffic problems are common in large cities today. It is often said that encouraging people to use public transport is the best solution to these problems. Do you agree or disagree? Are there other ways to solve these problems?

Today, massive traffic issues afflict the majority of large cities due to the increasing ownership of cars by a growing population. These issues encompass congestion, gridlock, time wastage, and pollution. Whether relying on public transport constitutes the optimal solution hinges on numerous factors.

The notion of ‘encouraging’ individuals to embrace public transport holds appeal, but their response will be affirmative solely if the available transportation is efficient, dependable, reasonably priced, and convenient. Many older cities struggle to provide these attributes. For instance, in my hometown, Sydney, commuters frequently voice concerns about reliability and costs, while convenience remains lacking in the outer suburbs. In a city boasting a robust transport network, individuals could be enticed away from personal vehicles through incentives such as special pricing promotions and/or penalties for driving, such as targeted taxes and substantial parking fees. Indeed, even a 10% shift in commuters opting for public transport could yield a significant impact.

Public transport proponents often overlook people’s deep attachment to their automobiles. Individuals desire and require private cars to sustain their existing lifestyles. Thus, alternative solutions are imperative. Firstly, technology is poised to offer various alternatives in the upcoming years, including compact cars and eco-friendly electric or hydrogen-powered vehicles. The development of autonomous vehicles promises enhanced safety and a reduction in road space consumption. Secondly, urban planning holds the potential to craft more intelligent cities, incorporating ‘hubs’ to minimize driving and travel distances. The establishment of bike lanes and an emphasis on pedestrian accessibility also encourage reduced car usage.

Addressing traffic challenges is a complex endeavor that might persist despite our efforts. Nevertheless, these issues can be mitigated through a blend of strategies tailored to local circumstances, which encompass enhancements to public transportation.


Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

The concept of leading a fulfilling life often entails a scenario where everything unfolds seamlessly, just as we desire. However, in reality, circumstances do not always align with our idealized expectations. Therefore, it is crucial for individuals to possess qualities and attitudes that welcome slight changes in plans and promote adaptability. This essay will explore the significance of cultivating situational awareness and the value of formulating multiple plans.

When collaborating with others, encountering forceful individuals with relatively more power is inevitable. In such situations, accurately interpreting the dynamics becomes essential. For instance, consider a meeting where we introduce a brilliant idea, only to have it rejected by the director’s son, who also sits on the board. It is imperative here to gauge the room’s atmosphere: do other attendees have the courage to rally behind our proposal, or are they aligning themselves with the director’s son? Failing to comprehend this critical scenario places us at a disadvantage and could potentially jeopardize our career.

Additionally, maintaining contingency plans is always prudent. Not all our envisioned plans unfold as smoothly as initially anticipated. Take, for example, an outdoor wedding celebration, which should be accompanied by a plan for addressing heavy rain during the reception. What arrangements are in place for guests if the weather takes a turn for the worse? Although backup plans necessitate extra preparation, their value becomes evident when circumstances become unfavorable. Reflecting on the adage, “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket,” underscores the need to be ready for the unexpected. While no one wishes for a power outage during their wedding vows, the possibility exists, warranting proactive consideration.

To conclude, while discussing engaging in tasks that deviate from our preferences, I assert that indeed, people should be prepared to tackle endeavors outside their original plans. As we invest more time in embracing such activities, we stand to benefit from personal growth and maturity. Others may perceive us as adaptable individuals, and these attributes undoubtedly hold intrinsic value.


In the past, people spent their entire lives doing one job. But nowadays, they change their jobs frequently. Please give the reasons and your suggestions.

While the experience of transitioning from one job to another can sometimes be distressing or even traumatic, thousands of employees change jobs rapidly every year. Yet the primary reason for this phenomenon has often remained hidden and therefore overlooked by the general public.

The trend of job hopping can primarily be attributed to the significant social changes taking place in the present day. The 21st century is marked by a rapid pace of change. Countries across the world are undergoing profound shifts in their political, economic, and social structures. These transformations have fundamentally altered how people perceive job hopping.

The days when a progressive career path involved remaining with the same company for a lifetime are long past. Neither employers nor employees directly associate long service with loyalty anymore. Employers no longer consider the number of employers an individual has worked for as the best measure of loyalty. Instead, they now place more emphasis on ensuring that employees are engaged and committed during their tenure, believing that this approach is more likely to yield positive outcomes. This means there is room for employees to change jobs relatively easily and to take control of their own advancement and growth at their own pace.

Despite these inevitable and irreversible social changes, there are actions that HR managers can take to enhance the current situation. It should be noted that employees sometimes choose to leave because they find that their jobs or workplaces fall short of their expectations. The working hours may not match the promises, training or promotions might not materialize as expected, and managers might have misrepresented salary offers. To manage expectations, HR managers should provide job candidates with a glimpse of job experiences before the interview, offering a more comprehensive understanding of what it’s like to work in the company.

Why are group or organization important to the people?

Why are group or organization important to the people?

In my country, Indonesia, there is a prevalent belief that all problems must be resolved through discussion. By employing discussion as a means of communication, people can arrive at the fairest and most balanced solutions to problems that are of general concern. However, prior to engaging in any form of discussion, people typically need to learn how to effectively organize themselves within a group. Two key advantages of organization or group participation are leadership development and the fostering of shared beliefs.

Within an organization, a specific structure, commonly referred to as the organizational structure, exists. This structure designates an individual who assumes the role of a trusted leader. This leader is supported by several assistants, while the remaining individuals comprise the group’s membership. To participate effectively in an organization, individuals must learn to respect the leadership while also retaining the ability to question the leader’s decisions if they appear questionable. Individuals who possess strong leadership qualities naturally gain favor among their peers and may eventually attain promotion to higher levels within the organization.

The effective development of organizations signifies the successful operation of the leadership process, resulting in the appropriate functioning of various roles within these organizations. It is evident that a nation comprises numerous organizations, each with its own distinct purpose or mission. When organizational leaders engage with the government, negotiations take place to pursue shared ambitions. In the absence of a healthy organizational culture, friction can easily arise within regions or even across a nation.

In conclusion, organizations play a pivotal role in a nation’s development. Consequently, it is advisable to cultivate a strong organizational culture from the outset and to establish proper mechanisms for resolving issues within organizations to prevent more widespread conflicts in the future.


In the past, when students did a university degree, they tended to study in their own country. Nowadays, they have more opportunity to study abroad. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this development?

The notion of pursuing higher education abroad has become increasingly feasible in today’s world due to the availability of various scholarships, particularly aimed at students from developing countries. This represents a notable advancement, as in the past, studying options were limited to one’s own country. This trend significantly enhances career professional growth, as individuals are afforded the opportunity to establish an international network. However, a potential drawback of this trend is the phenomenon known as human capital flight, commonly referred to as brain drain.

When individuals study abroad, whether in English-speaking nations or not, they interact with people from diverse backgrounds, thereby gaining insights, especially from a socio-cultural perspective. This exposure broadens their understanding of how global systems operate and how they are perceived universally. International experiences provide students with an alternative outlook, fostering personal growth. Given the interconnected nature of the modern world, this experience acquired from studying abroad can be remarkably advantageous for future career prospects.

Nevertheless, it should be acknowledged that certain opportunistic individuals might opt not to return to their home countries upon completing their overseas education. The primary rationale for this decision is often better career prospects. For instance, in the case of Indonesia, a developing country, ideas and expertise of its citizens are frequently undervalued. Consequently, many Indonesians choose to remain abroad and develop their careers there, sometimes even renouncing their Indonesian citizenship. From a broader perspective, this is undeniably detrimental to the home country, in this case, Indonesia.

In conclusion, studying abroad greatly contributes to gaining a well-rounded perspective, which is instrumental in career development. However, this advantage should not be taken for granted. In my view, countries should earnestly endeavor to enhance their local academic environments by being more receptive, supportive, and encouraging of their citizens’ ideas and expertise to counteract the undesirable brain drain.


The line graph informs the data for consumption of three items of starchy foods namely potatoes, pasta and rice in a certain European country. The graph is divided into six periods of five years starting from 1976 and ending in 2006.

In 1976, the amount of pasta consumed was 250 grams and it then continued to increase gradually until 1996 to 500 grams per week. Between 1996 and 2006, however, it leveled off at the rate of 500 grams.

The amount of consumption for potatoes in 1976 was 400 grams, making it the highest of the three items. From then on, it fluctuated a bit until 1986 when it was equaled by pasta at 400 grams per week. The trend for potatoes consumption showed a steady decline from 1991 to 2006 and it ended the period just slightly above 100 grams.

Rice was the least popular choice for most of the time in the period. From 1981 to 2001 it was the least consumed of the three items. However, it had risen and surpassed potatoes consumption from 2001 to 2006, ending the period at 200 grams.

Overall, although pasta started with the lowest amount in 1976, it was proven to be the choice of the majority since 1991.


Many historical sites and museums are mainly visited by tourists, not local people. Why is this the case? What can be done to attract local people in visiting this historical sites and museums?

It is recognized that the majority of visitors to museums or locations with historical significance are primarily tourists, as opposed to locals. This phenomenon could be attributed to cultural or financial factors. Effective management of these sites and a consistent effort to reengage the local community could hold the key to increasing the participation of local residents.

The individuals who frequent historical sites tend to be tourists from different regions or countries. This is simply because these individuals have never previously visited these locations. In contrast, locals are already familiar with these places, which often fail to offer novel experiences. They possess comprehensive knowledge about the site and thus do not feel compelled to revisit it. For instance, many tourists visiting Palembang make it a point to capture photographs on the Ampera Bridge. Yet, having resided in Palembang for numerous years, I find the Ampera Bridge far from captivating. This highlights how a city’s distinctive icon can hold varying values for different individuals.

Museums serve as educational hubs, offering valuable insights into the history of specific regions. However, they often adhere to traditional management practices, resulting in an outdated and somewhat eerie atmosphere. Museums need to be reimagined and redesigned with interactivity in mind. If museums were to undergo a modern and stylish transformation, becoming appealing locations for socializing, a surge in visitors can be anticipated, particularly if they are deemed visually attractive for platforms like Instagram.

An additional approach to ensure a rise in visitor numbers is to promote the newly revamped museums and reduce entrance fees for local residents. This strategy would enable local citizens to benefit from the promotion, encouraging families to visit collectively, enjoying the facility’s offerings while being both entertained and educated by the experience. Although this method is promising, it necessitates the museum management’s ability to maintain operations with the reduced revenue. With time, it is hoped that this approach will prove beneficial to management as people become increasingly familiar with and fond of the venue.

In conclusion, potential strategies to enhance the engagement of local visitors involve incorporating visitors into well-structured programs and ensuring that ticket prices are affordable for all members of the community.


Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Higher education is essentially a necessity in today’s professional world, as individuals require specialization to secure employment. There exists a notion that, in order to promote gender equality and empower women, the gender distribution of students in various subjects should be balanced. While this idea might seem appealing, it is, in reality, impractical.

Firstly, students’ subject preferences are often influenced by broader observations of the job market. It is natural to observe a higher demand for women in professions like professional flight attendants and roles within kindergarten or preschool education. These types of jobs are frequently sought after by employers, which naturally dissuades males from pursuing degrees in early childhood education.

Moreover, many professions are open and accessible to both genders. For instance, careers such as chef or hairstylist are not gender-restricted, as long as individuals possess the necessary skills and passion. In contrast, while there is no formal prohibition preventing women from working in coal mining, the demanding physical nature of the job is not typically associated with women’s strengths. Thus, professions like firefighting and mining are predominantly male-dominated due to the physical attributes—strength, fitness, and stamina—required to excel in these roles.

In conclusion, I disagree with the notion of enforcing a gender-equal student distribution. Encouraging individuals to pursue paths they are uninterested in will not contribute to societal progress. It’s essential to allow people to follow their passions rather than imposing artificial gender-based quotas, thereby fostering a more genuine and effective development of society.


In many parts of the world, children and teenagers are spending more and more of their time indoors. What do you think are the causes of this problem? What measures could best be taken to solve it?

People are increasingly reliant on indoor living these days, and there are several arguments suggesting that parents are now hesitant to let their children play outdoors for various reasons. This issue might be evident to some individuals, and it ultimately stems from the fact that we are becoming lazier than ever before, coupled with the widespread incompetence of our government in numerous aspects.

To begin with, the speed of technological advancement that has occurred in recent times is beyond anyone’s anticipation. Virtually everything one needs can be accessed with a simple request through their fingertips, and a mobile phone’s internet connection can link them to the global network. In light of this rapid progress, we are removing reasons to venture outside, consequently succumbing to a greater level of indolence. Compounding this problem, other contributing factors include high levels of pollution and increased criminal activities. It doesn’t require exceptional insight to comprehend how these factors collectively contribute to our growing inclination to spend time indoors.

Admitting that indoor confinement is problematic might be a challenging notion to accept, especially considering that contemporary society resists reverting to past norms. Given the convenience offered, the internet has evolved into an all-encompassing solution for human needs, resulting in reduced outdoor engagement unless explicitly necessary. To rectify this situation, we must heighten our collective awareness of our prevailing indolence. Only by acknowledging that we have reached a critical threshold of laziness can we begin to expect the younger generation to embrace outdoor activities. Additionally, parents should motivate their children by providing financial support for engaging in beneficial activities like swimming or attending a gym. Simultaneously, the government should take more effective measures to lower crime rates and address pollution issues.

In conclusion, only time will tell whether young individuals will once again be encouraged to participate in outdoor activities. The first step towards improvement lies in recognizing the predicament of excessive indoor seclusion. Ultimately, it is imperative for the government to eliminate discouraging elements that hinder the enjoyment of outdoor pursuits.


Some people think that local authorities should control where buildings can be constructed. Others think that everyone should be free to build where they like without obtaining permission. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Building permits are a subject often debated due to differing beliefs and arguments about the applicable system. Some individuals think that regional governments should control construction permits, while others believe they are free to build without any permits or requirements. This essay delves into these two opposing viewpoints.

In an ideal scenario, the government would employ experts in urban and development planning. If the government possesses experts who have designed how the city will grow and where development will be concentrated, then enacting regulations regarding development permits becomes crucial. With such permits, the influx of investment capital will not disrupt the city’s development plan but will align with the initial blueprint. However, in reality, local governments often lack this expertise and as a result, relinquish their authority to investors who are eager to build wherever deemed strategic. This leads to disorganized urban planning and creates an impression that the law can be influenced by those with substantial financial means.

On the flip side, residents often desire the freedom to construct anywhere within their area. This frequently occurs in regions where the local government has only recently gained representation and the central government has yet to grant autonomy to the local authorities. Consequently, clarity regarding land ownership is lacking, since the national agency overseeing land management might not function optimally in that area. Residents believe they possess the right to build freely on land passed down or managed according to their ancestral traditions. The government, both at the central and regional levels, is frequently viewed as a party attempting to seize their land without offering adequate compensation to previous landowners.

In conclusion, the government must adopt transparency in planning development and resolving land disputes involving people’s property. Only when the law is consistently enforced in a just and balanced manner, and the government is ready to accept all consequences, can we begin untangling the intricate web of land ownership in this country.