The bar chart compares the male and female involvement both in full-time education and part-time education. The chart is split into two with female data on the right-hand side and male data on the left-hand side while the data is measured in thousands and in three different periods of time.

It can be seen that both female and male number for full-time education increases steadily over the period. There was a slight increase for male in this sector from 1970/71 to 1980/81 followed by a more significant increase to about 250,000 in 1990/91. The female side, however, had a marked increase in 1980/81 and less so in the 1990/91. These figures in 1990/91 for both genders were rather similar.

On the other hand, the number of male attendance in part-time education showed different trend to that of the female. The male had a decline from 1,000,000 in 1970/71 to 850,000 in 1980/81 before bouncing back to 900,000 concluding the period in 1990/91 with an overall downward trend. In contrast, the female figures in part-time education started rather low compared to that of a male when in 1970/71 it started from approximately 720,000. After a slight increase to 820,000 in 1980/81, the numbers of female studying in part-time education soared to about 1,100,000, widening the gap with the numbers of male students in 1990/91.

To sum up, the female numbers in both education type and all period showed a consistent rise, and this was the same for the male trend in full-time education. Nevertheless, the male trend for part-time education concluded a bit differently as it generally showed more of a decline.


Should the international community do more to tackle the threat of global warming?

Global warming has long been recognized as a serious problem by most climate scientists. Governments around the world have begun to take the necessary measures to address it. However, as our understanding of the scale and nature of the problem is still developing, efforts to tackle global warming need to be reassessed from time to time.

Recent evidence suggests that some risk factors associated with climate change may have been overstated. Sea levels are now expected to rise by approximately one metre, not two metres, as previously thought. This is because some glaciers and ice sheets appear to be contracting, the Arctic, for example, while others, such as the Antarctic, appear to be expanding. Also, it is now thought that the Gulf Stream is unlikely to vanish. It may, therefore, be possible to scale back plans for flood defences in coastal areas.

However, there is also evidence that some of the consequences of climate change may have been understated. Tropical forests are now believed to be more vulnerable to drought. Hurricanes and typhoons may become more severe. Greater efforts should therefore be made to protect vulnerable populations, especially in tropical areas. Buildings in storm-prone areas may also need to be re-designed to withstand high winds.

These recommendations, however, address the symptoms of global warming, not the root cause: the generation of greenhouse gases. Whatever the precise scale and nature of the consequences of global warming, they are all undesirable. Clearly, more needs to be done to reduce the burning of fossil fuels. Stricter emissions targets should be set and use of alternative sources of energy encouraged. It would be profoundly irresponsible to do nothing about the causes of global warming.


Increasing numbers of students are choosing to study abroad. To what extent does this trend benefit the students themselves and the countries involved? What are the drawbacks?

Studying abroad has become increasingly common in the last few years, especially for young people from countries such as China and India. Many students and their families clearly consider the experience worth the sacrifices involved. The former often give up friendships when they move abroad; the latter often use their life savings. Moreover, many governments are willing to invest huge sums of money in sponsoring their young people to study in universities overseas. However, this trend has drawbacks as well as benefits for those concerned.

One potential drawback is that the instruction international students receive may not be relevant to their home contexts. For example, students from developing countries who go to Western countries for teacher training are often taught to use teaching techniques that are suitable for small classes. When they return home they are often expected to teach classes of 40 or 50 students. Hence, what they have been trained to do may not be relevant.

Another potential drawback is the phenomenon of ‘brain drain’. Prior to leaving home, they may be fully committed to returning. Nevertheless, students are often at the stage in their lives when they are forming their most important personal and professional relationships. Thus they may choose to remain in the host country on completing their studies.

However, most international students find ways of making the experience work well for themselves and others involved. Most return home, enriched by new friendships made abroad. Furthermore, most find ways of adapting what they have learned to their home context. On balance, the drawbacks do not outweigh the benefits.


Some people think that it is necessary to testing medicine on animals, its intended to human; however, some think that it is not the best way to use animals for testing a medicine.

The use of animals for science purpose has long been debated as people seem to be divided about this particular issue. While others agree that we need to sacrifice animals, some animal lovers, such as PETA, are strongly against this act of cruelty toward animals. This essay will discuss about the two sides in this debate.

The experiments in the science laboratory sometimes need to inject certain animals with particular chemicals to see how it will react in their body. The cause and effect of the chemicals, which later on will be the basis of medicine for people, are seen as a positive way towards the advancement of medical world. If the medicines are not tested, they may give side effects which will be fatal if it is found in the later stage of the development. Hence, why the pharmacy company invest great amount of money to their research and development department so that the medicines are properly tested and safe to be used.

However, people cannot be expected to accept this logic and use it as the basis to harm the animals. People who protect the animals rights tend to see it as a convoluted way for big company to gain money. They do not seem to agree that animals should be sacrificed for medical reasons and they always go on strike on every opportunity to show their disagreement. It seems that the only way to stop their objection is by putting them as a member in the national health council.

In conclusion, I think it is necessary to show to the public that the animals are not treated cruelly and poorly. They are respected and honored and are used for the sake of the advancement of science in general. Overall, the two sides need to meet and solve their difference once and for all.


Older people these days prefer to live in retirement communities with other older, others want to live with their adult children.

Life has been offering a lot to senior citizens who have lived for more than 60 years old. They are already at the retirement age and need to choose whether to stay with their family or to move to a nursing home. Some people think that this personal choice should be taken only after carefully considering the pros and cons of both options.

When people are old, living with their family seems to be the only logical thing to do. Family members usually would not mind if they have to take care of their parents as they grow older. In some cultures, people are taken care in a loving family and enjoy their role for the grandchildren. However, for those families who don’t have the resources, staying with family members might not be the best option as the older family members are often seen as an unwanted burden and are not cared adequately.

In contrast, staying in a nursing home will be more costly and expenses need to be accounted. However, professional nurses and general practitioners will always be ready monitoring the elders’ health condition and ensuring that they receive the best available treatment. Of course, there is no guarantee that every nursing facilities will provide the best service and quality. Therefore, it is important not too overgeneralize that all nursing homes are capable of doing excellent job in caring for the elders.

All in all, I believe that the decision is a combination of financial decision and personal decision. For any children, it is a good thing to take care of their parents. However, when the situation is not ideal, ensuring their care in the best nursing home can be a viable option after all factors have been considered thoroughly.


Young people are more interested in pop singer and movie stars rather than history figure of their own country. Why is this? What can be done to make the young people know more about their own history?

Our teenagers have experienced and are exposed more to the pop culture of the global trend rather than to their own history and important figure of their own nation. This sad situation needs to be improved. This essay talks about the reason behind this phenomenon and the possible solutions for this particular issue.

As technology becomes more advanced each and every day, teenagers are forced to adapt with it and they become what is known as the early adopter of technology. Therefore, their interest is highly engaged to things that are coming in the near future. They do not really think much about past things because in their opinion what important is what is going to come in the future time. As a result, they lack the awareness of anything that is related to the past, namely history, or other important figures that can only be known by reading boring history subjects. They only seek to find information that interests them, such as latest songs or movies, and if it is not interesting, they are not going to spend any time into it.

In order to improve their awareness of national figures who are important such as national heroes or founding fathers, I think it is essential to present the information in a format that can maintain their interest. One way to do this is to create informative video in a Youtube channel and this should be done creatively and interestingly using many effects and fonts and color options that are interesting to look at. Another way is to create an application for mobile phone that contains interactive games and quizzes about our national heroes. By delivering the information in a unique way, it is hoped that the knowledge is more accessible to them rather than delivering it in a plain, boring format.

In conclusion, teenagers need to be reached in a specific way. They are unlikely to touch or read anything that is not colorful and full of text so history books need to be reformatted into a more trendy and acceptable to our current young generation.


Business and cultural exchange between countries is increasing and this is thought to be a positive development by some. However, others believe that it may lead to loss of national identity. Discuss both views and give your opinion.

The importance of global trade is known by many as almost all countries these days adopt globalization strategy and utilize export and import to boost their national economy. This brings with it migration flows from one country to another and people have become more mixed and many metropolitan cities have been regarded as a melting pot for individuals from many countries. Still, there is an ongoing debate that this phenomenon is not that positive and may have some kind of disadvantage in the form of the erosion of national values.

When people from other countries come to Indonesia to do their business and stay for several months or years, they also bring along with them their cultures and their habit. Now, the meeting of the two cultures – Western styles and Indonesian culture – is said to be a positive development. For example, international people, unlike Indonesian, are very strict when it comes to time management. Indonesian then can learn how to appreciate time better from their international counterparts. With the better appreciation for time management, it is hoped that many projects can meet the deadline and not get delayed as the usual tradition in Indonesia.

However, it is also known that people from Western culture tend to be permissive when it comes to drinking habit and adultery (sex – out of marriage bonds). If they promote such a habit in their work circle, perhaps Indonesian who do not do this at first, might then be influenced by such a habit. While Indonesian mostly rely on “Jamu”, Western people tend to take drugs or whiskey to numb and escape their problems temporarily. Such a contrast is what people see as a loss of national identity, and although the likelihood is minor, it still worries some people, particularly the religious one.

In my opinion, people should allow business meeting clients and cultural exchange happen naturally. It is not necessary to restrict or to limit anything at all. Each individual has already got their knowledge and morale basis to separate which one is the right thing or the wrong thing to do. Our love towards the national identity should be proven by our willingness to take part in the international stage, and instead of being the influenced ones, be the influencer.

In conclusion, globalization phenomenon is thought to have its pros and cons. I entirely agree that globalization has more positive things attached in it rather than negativity. The negative effect of globalization can be eliminated easily by strengthening our own code and proper conduct.


Most people believe that stricter punishment should be given for traffic offences. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Some institutions now are forcing the government for a stricter punishment for people who violate traffic regulations. I agree about this phenomenon as it is important for us to reduce accident rate and push people to safer transportation.

First of all, I think that people who violate rules such as driving under the influence of alcohol and those who exceed speed limits are serious threat for the life of other road users. Moreover, teenagers tend to drive while texting or communicating in their mobile phone, which distracts their focus from what’s going on in the road. Pedestrians are primarily at risk due to such dangerous behaviors. Therefore, we need to punish people with severe punishments so that they don’t do it again and again. In addition to that we need to prevent it by campaigning massively in the media about the safety in the road.

Secondly, I think that private cars cause the most of accident in the road. If only more people use public transportation such as MRT or Electric Train or buses, then the number of accidents should show a significant reduction. We need a good policy to let people know that private cars should be used more responsibly. For example, people who have accident while driving their own cars should not be driving their private cars for two years time and can only take public transportation. This kind of regulation will effectively remove the threat from the road, at least for some time.

In conclusion, I totally agree that the government should give severe punishment to deter all dangerous driving habit. Reckless driving is a serious threat for people’s life and it is time that we do something effective to prevent it from happening.


Nowadays more and more people want to get things done instantly (services, information, tasks). Why is this? Do you think it is a positive or negative development?

Life has demand us a faster way in doing almost everything related to every aspect in our day to day situation. People do not have time to wait for a long time because they are afraid that they might be left behind in the competition. This essay will analyze more about the reasoning behind people’s tendency to do anything in an instant.

The first reason is that people need to build a success in career in a very young age compared to the past. In the past, people tend to get a job at the age of 24 or 25 and they stay at the same job as the result of low competition. In contrast, teenagers these days have technology at the tips of their hand and they can get any information quickly. Many people build start up that creates billions of dollars although they are very young. Even adolescents and teenagers can invent something if they work hard for it. This is the first reason why people do things instantly: if you are slow, you will be left behind.

The second reason is that the exposure of social media. Social media has the tendency to reflect the bias that is intentionally made by people in our surroundings. They put on their glamorous wedding party photos, their expensive vacation trips to exotic international places, and their every success in personal and career. Having been surrounded by the display of success and positivity, people will have no options other than comparing their life to that of others. They then will ask the similar question: what do I need to do to be successful like that? This jealousy feeling makes people more spirited and motivated to pursue success in life, hence, the reason why they want everything to be done quickly.

In conclusion, I believe that this is all positive development. People are motivated by others’ display of success and try to improve their life based on it. However, it is important to be mindful that for the weak-minded people, it can cause them unwanted depression and the feeling of unworthiness as they regard themselves as less successful compared to other peers, friends, and families.